a causal association between factor and outcome can refer to a) statistical independence b) secondary

a causal association between factor and outcome can refer to a) statistical independence b) secondary association c) indirect asosicaiton d) Drirection association e) both c & d The death rate per 100,000 for lung cancer is 7 among non-smokers and 71 among smokers. The death rate per 100,000 for coronary thrombosis is 422 among non-smokers and 599 among smokers. The prevalence of smoking in the population is 55%.


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