Critically appraise the below article using the criteria listed below:
Articles Websites: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3714350/
PICO question: In patients with substance use disorder, how does the implementation of a buprenorphine treatment program affect treatment retention compared to a methadone treatment program?
· Quote (add page number) or rephrase the research purpose and/or research question/hypothesis if there is any.
· Identify the major study variables: can be found in the above statements. Data on these study variables are usually collected using the instruments/tools described in the “measurement” section.
· Name of the research design and its level of evidence associated with your PICO question.
· Advantages and disadvantages of this design
Sampling technique, sample size and sample characteristics
· Is sample size adequate or too small?
· Are there any sampling bias?
· Was the non-response rate high?
Measurement and data collection:
· The name, reliability and validity of each measurement/tool (except the one for demographics)
· Data collection methods (who, how and through what channel), e.g. structured vs semi-structured survey, self-report vs. observation or interviewer rated, bio-physiological vs. psycho-social-behavioral, face-to-face vs mailed, telephone, online, computer based, etc.
· Strategies or lack of description of such strategies to yield high-quality and unbiased data
· How were the data analyzed? Were the statistics used appropriate?
· If there were missing data, did the researchers described how missing data were handled?
· For longitudinal and repeated measure designs, did attrition or loss to follow-up affect study results? If there were attrition, what statistical methods were used to reach unbiased results?
Other design-specific issues
· Answer the appraisal questions specific to the research design of your article but have not been covered in above sections.
Major research findings
· Include the magnitude of effect and strength of association (effect size).
· Are the findings clinical significant?
Overall validity of the study:
Summarize your answer to the question, “Are the results of the study valid” and state why