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|Negative behavior||The mother sometimes gets anxious and cannot get the baby to sleep or pushes the child to wake him up when he sleeps for more than 10 hours.|
|Positive behavior||Sometimes the child sleeps for more than 10 hours|
|Recommendation / Guidelines||The mother to let the child sleep and wake up on his own. American Academy of Sleep Medicine and Sleep Research Society recommends 9- 12 hours of sleep for children up to the age of 12years (Watson et al., 2015).|
|Scholarly reference||Chaput, J. P., Dutil, C., & Sampasa-Kanyinga, H. (2018). Sleeping hours: what is the ideal number and how does age impact this?.Nature and science of sleep,10, 421.
Watson, N. F., Badr, M. S., Belenky, G., Bliwise, D. L., Buxton, O. M., Buysse, D., … & Heald, J. L. (2015). Consensus Conference Panel. Joint consensus statement of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine and Sleep Research Society on the recommended amount of sleep for a healthy adult: methodology and discussion.Sleep,38(8), 1161-1183.
|Professional/Ethical Communication||Acknowledging the mother’s concerns and worry when her son does not wake up after 10 hours and when he does not sleep (Chaput et al., 2018).
Educate the mother on the side effects of the mediations she wishes her child would be given, such as Xanax and Benadryl, to promote his sleep.
Educate the mother on the effects of watching television immediately before the child goes to sleep. And the mother to prevent the child from watching television before bedtime (Chaput et al., 2018).
|Negative behavior||Washing the teeth of the child using water alone.|
|Positive behavior||The mother brushed the child’s teeth twice a day in the morning and at night.|
|Recommendation / Guidelines||The mother to use fluoridated toothpaste while brushing the child’s teeth (WellCare, 2018).|
|Scholarly reference||References WellCare. (2018, December 7). Retrieved from DENTAL AND ORAL HEALTH: file:///C:/Users/Hp/Downloads/NA_ALL_CPG_Dental_and_Oral_Health_eng_07_2018_v2.pdf
Pullishery, F., Panchmal, G. S., & Shenoy, R. (2018). Parental attitudes and tooth brushing habits in preschool children in Mangalore, Karnataka: A cross-sectional study.International Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry,6(3), 156.
|Professional/Ethical Communication||Appreciate the mother for brushing the child’s teeth twice a day.
The mother needs to supervise the child while he brushes his teeth, especially when older than 25 months (Pullishery et al., 2018).
Encouraging the mother to make regular visits to the dentist. Healthcare Providers can estimate the infant’s risk of acquiring caries and devise a preventative strategy as well as a schedule for periodic re-evaluation (WellCare, 2018).
|Issue||Environmental health safety|
|Negative behavior||The mother smokes everywhere else in the house, including in the kitchen.|
|Positive behavior||The mother does not smoke in his son’s room. All medication, household cleaning agents, and poisons are kept away from the child’s reach.|
|Recommendation / Guidelines||Advise the mother to stop smoking cigarettes in the house or quit smoking altogether (Ratschen et al., 2018).|
|Scholarly reference||Semple, S., Apsley, A., Ibrahim, T. A., Turner, S. W., & Cherrie, J. W. (2015). Fine particulate matter concentrations in smoking households: just how much secondhand smoke do you breathe in if you live with a smoker who smokes indoors?.Tobacco Control,24(e3), e205-e211.
Ratschen, E., Thorley, R., Jones, L., Breton, M. O., Cook, J., McNeill, A., … & Lewis, S. (2018). A randomised controlled trial of a complex intervention to reduce children’s exposure to secondhand smoke in the home.Tobacco control,27(2), 155-162.
|Professional/Ethical Communication||Children are still young, and their lungs are still developing. Passive smoking can thus negatively affect their health (Ratschen et al., 2018). Whenever parents smoke around their kids or when they are susceptible to secondhand smoke from their surroundings, they may risk developing asthma and lung cancer. Children are exposed to the carcinogens in secondhand smoking even if their parents exclusively smoke outside (Semple et al., 2019).|
|Issue||Alcohol/ Substance Abuse|
|Negative behavior||The mother smokes at home and sometimes misplaces it. And one occasion, her son grabbed one cigarette and started chewing on it. He might have swallowed the cigarette.|
|Positive behavior||She has the poison’s control number in her phone.|
|Recommendation / Guidelines||The mother should try and keep her cigarettes safe and out of reach of the child.|
|Scholarly reference||Harvey, J., Chadi, N., Canadian Pediatric Society, & Adolescent Health Committee. (2018). Preventing smoking in children and adolescents: Recommendations for practice and policy.Pediatrics & Child Health,21(4), 209-214.|
|Professional/Ethical Communication||The mother may feel guilty about her son accessing the cigarette and even chewing it. The healthcare provider should be empathetic. The side effects of cigarettes on children are carefully explained to the mother to encourage and promote behavior change, such as quitting smoking (Harvey et al., 2019).|
|Issue||Car seat safety|
|Negative behavior||The mother places her baby in the car seat facing forward, just like everybody else.|
|Positive behavior||The mother uses the car seat and puts the baby in a position where she can see the baby while driving.|
|Recommendation / Guidelines||The use of a rear-facing car seat for infants and toddlers is necessary until the baby reaches the car seat’s maximum height and weight.|
|Scholarly reference||Henary, B., Sherwood, C. P., Crandall, J. R., Kent, R. W., Vaca, F. E., Arbogast, K. B., & Bull, M. J. (2017). Retraction: Car safety seats for children: rear facing for best protection (Henary et al., 2017)|
|Professional/Ethical Communication||Educate the mother on the safety precautions while driving with a baby. The baby should be buckled well on a rear-facing seat. The babies should not be placed in the front seats because airbags in the front passenger seats can harm the child during a crash (Henary et al., 2017).|