Transcribed Image Text: Step 1: lexicon and context-free grammar

Transcribed Image Text: Step 1: lexicon and context-free grammar
(Some of the above might be grammatical in special contexts, e.g. assuming ‘ellip-
sis’, i.e. omitted phrases that are understood from the larger context of a dialogue.
In this practical, we don’t consider ellipsis, nor do we consider uncommon usage
of words that would require a stretch of imagination to justify.) Once more run
Consider the following positive examples:
Bart giggles
Homer giggled
Bart and Lisa drank milk
Bart wears blue shoes
Step 3: feature grammar
Homer serves Lisa and Bart a healthy green salad
The grammar you wrote in Step 1 will likely accept some of the negative examples.
This is because the following have not been modelled:
Bart always drinks milk
Lisa thinks Homer thinks Bart drinks milk
Homer and Bart never drink milk in the kitchen after lunch
• number agreement,
when does Lisa drink milk in the kitchen
• subcategorisation.
when Homer drinks milk Bart giggles
when do Lisa and Bart wear shoes
For number agreement, first remember that English has five verb forms for ordinary
verbs (and a few more for to be):
Lisa puts the milk in the kitchen
• base form: to write, you write
Note that all punctuation has been removed in order to avoid complications, and we
do not enforce capitalisation at the beginning of sentences.
Extend P2.fcfg with more rules so that all words from the above sentences are
• third person singular present: he writes
included. You will need to introduce more parts of speech such as Det (e.g. ‘the’), Prep
(e.g. ‘in’, ‘after’), Adj (e.g. ‘green’), and a few more. Note that the two occurrences of
‘when’ have different functions, so need to be associated with different parts of speech.
At this point, you may not want to distinguish between singular and plural noun
phrases, nor between different verb forms, nor between verbs with different subcate-
gorisation frames.
Also add more context-free rules, so that the above sentences can be derived. Make
• preterite (a.k.a. simple past): wrote
• past participle: written
• present participle (a.k.a. gerund if used as noun): writing
For our simple examples, we only need the first form (used for third person plural
present, and infinitive) and the second (third person singular present) and the third
(preterite). Features can be added to the grammar to ensure that only the correct verb
forms are allowed, and that there is number agreement for those verb forms where it
sure the rules defining the start symbol (S) come first. (NLTK by default assumes that
the first mentioned nonterminal is the start symbol.)
When designing your grammar, beware of the distinction between argument and
adjunct. In the above example sentences, PP ‘in the kitchen’ is once an adjunct and
once an argument.
is relevant.
Subcategorisation should be implemented as illustrated by the following example
(which ignores the issue of number agreement):
S -> NP VP[SUBCAT=nil]
VP [SUBCAT=?rest] -> VP [SUBCAT=[HEAD=?arg, TAIL=?rest]] ARG [CAT=?arg]
VP [SUBCAT=?args] -> V[SUBCAT=?args]
Step 2: intermediate testing of the grammar
Add the above positive examples to P2.pos and add the below negative examples to
ARG [CAT=np] -> NP
ARG [CAT=pp] -> PP
when Bart giggles
when does Lisa
Homer puts
V [SUBCAT=nil] -> ‘sneezes’
V [SUBCAT=[HEAD=np, TAIL=[HEAD=pp, TAIL=nil]]] -> ‘gave’
Bart thinks the kitchen Transcribed Image Text: S
ARG [CAT=pp]
he VP [SUBCAT=[HEAD=np,TAIL= [HEAD=pp,TAIL=nil]]] ARG [CAT=np]
: to his brother
the bike
Figure 1: Graphical representation of the parse of he gave the bike to his brother.
Note the two applications of VP[SUBCAT=?rest] -> VP [SUBCAT= [HEAD=?arg,
TAIL=?rest]] ARG [CAT=?arg]. Also note the topmost VP has [SUBCAT=nil], which
is needed to apply the rule with left-hand side S.
How the rules for subcategorisation are applied is illustrated in Figure 1. In order to
handle the verbs in our example sentences, further rules for V and ARG are needed, but it
should be possible to reuse the rule VP[SUBCAT=?rest] -> VP[SUBCAT= [HEAD=?arg,
TAIL=?rest]] ARG[CAT=?arg] for several verbs, regardless of their subcategorisation
Step 4: final testing
Again test the positive and negative examples, and verify that all positive examples
are accepted, and none of the negative examples are accepted. You may add more
positive and negative examples (with words in the lexicon) to convince yourself that
your grammar is satisfactory.
Submit a zipped file containing:
• P2. py (unmodified)
• P2.fcfg (extended by you)
… – 2


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